… Persian traditions were revived together with Timur in ninth century. Timur attempted to make a Persian style capital in Samarkand. Revival of Persian architecture continued with Safavids. Shah Abbas began the path toward increasing his capital of Isfahan as an enormous garden city. Their expansive, iwan-shaded courts and gigantic domes became role model to oncoming states.
Meanwhile, Although France and Spain were dominant power in europe, Italy was still base of architectural approach. Europe was separated into two; protestants and catholics. The northern part of europe was protestant, southern part were catholic. Spain claimed itself as the most catholic state. Philip II supported classical architecture style from Rome of sixteenth century. His greatest monument was the monastery of San Lorenzo.
He supported and became a part of other palaces and gardens as well. Through renewing only a few plazas and public buildings, he plainly proposed the extreme, all around adjusted outline of the Escorial to serve as a counteractant to Alhamra and a pronouncement of his ideological objectives. Philip II and the architects of the Escorial created a new style in catholic church.